Blast Furnace Ironmaking Technology
It mainly uses concentrate technology, high-pressure operation technology, high air temperature operation technology, fuel injection technology, oxygen-rich blast technology, long-life technology of blast furnace, etc.
(1) Concentrate Technology.
That is, improve the quality of raw fuel, reduce coke ratio and improve smelting intensity. Blast furnace ironmaking requires high, clean, uniform, stable, less, and good quality raw fuel. High iron content is of high grade. Normal blast furnaces should reach 58% and super large blast furnaces 59%-60% or higher. The net result is that the powder content of charge is low, the iron content less than 5 mm should be less than 5%, and the super large blast furnace should be less than 3%. The Uniform size of all kinds of charges is equal. The average size of sinter entering the furnace is 18-20 mm, and the size > 40 mm is less than 10%. Stability is the chemical composition and performance stability of the charge. Fewer non-ferrous elements and fewer impurities of harmful elements; Fortunately, the metallurgical properties of the charge are better.
(2) High-pressure Operation Technology.
That is, the operation technology of increasing the pressure on the top of the furnace and keeping the gas in the whole blast furnace under high pressure so as to improve the smelting intensity, increase the output and reduce the coke ratio. The top pressure of high-pressure operation of large blast furnaces ranges from 200 kPa to 300 kPa, and the top pressure of some blast furnaces with a capacity of less than 1000 cubic meters exceeds 120 kPa. In modern blast furnaces, every 10 kPa increase in top pressure can increase production and reduce the fuel ratio by 2%.
(3) High Air Temperature Operation Technology.
That is, the operation of heating the blower temperature to over 1200C by means of a hot air stove. It is an important measure to reduce the coke ratio and strengthen smelting in BF. Using blast heating technology, the blast temperature of the blast furnace can be increased to 1300C. In modern blast furnaces, coke can be saved by 3% and the corresponding output can be increased with an increasing air temperature of 100 C.
(4) Fuel Injection Technology.
An enhanced smelting technology for blast furnaces in which gas, liquid, or solid fuels are injected into the blast furnaces through special equipment to replace some coke in the charge of the blast furnaces. The purpose is to improve the operation of blast furnaces, increase the production of pig iron, expand the variety and source of fuel used in blast furnace smelting and reduce the cost of pig iron. The main types of fuel injected are heavy oil, natural gas, and coal powder.
(5)Oxygen-rich Blower Technology.
That is, industrial oxygen is added to the blast furnace to make oxygen content in the blast exceed atmospheric oxygen content, strengthen fuel combustion in the air outlet area, so as to improve smelting intensity and increase pig iron output. With the development of blast furnace smelting technology, the combination of high air temperature, oxygen enrichment, and fuel injection is of great significance to the strengthening of blast furnace smelting.
(6)Long-life Technology of Blast Furnace.
Comprehensive technical measures for increasing the age of blast furnaces. Reasonable design of blast furnace inner type, application of the non-superheated cooling system and closed circulating cooling technology with pure water (soft water), optimization of lining structure of hearth and bottom of blast furnace, and establishment of perfect automatic monitoring and control system of the blast furnace are the important characteristics for stable, smooth and efficient production of the blast furnace. The design life of large-scale blast furnaces is 20-25 years. The volume of iron yield per cubic meter of the first generation of blast furnaces should reach 15,000-20,000 tons.
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