How Does an Electric Arc Furnace Work?
The electric arc furnace is an electric furnace that uses the high temperature produced by the electrode arc to melt ores and metals. When gas discharge forms an arc, the energy is very concentrated and the temperature in the arc zone is above 3000 ℃. For smelting metal, the electric arc furnace is more flexible than other steelmaking furnaces and can effectively remove impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus. The furnace temperature is easy to control and the equipment covers a small area. It is suitable for smelting high-quality alloy steel. Arc furnaces can be divided into three-phase electric arc furnaces, consumable electric arc furnaces, single-phase electric arc furnaces, and resistance electric arc furnaces according to the arc form.
Electric arc furnace steelmaking uses graphite electrode to input electric energy into electric arc furnace, and takes arc between electrode end and charge as the heat source for steelmaking. Electric energy is used as the heat source in electric arc furnace, which can adjust the atmosphere in the furnace. It is very advantageous to melt steels containing more oxidizable elements. Shortly after the invention of electric arc furnace steelmaking, it was used to smelt alloy steel and gained great development.
With the improvement of electric arc furnace equipment and smelting technology, and the development of the electric power industry, the cost of electric arc furnace steelmaking is decreasing continuously. Now electric arc furnace steelmaking is not only used to produce alloy steel, but also to produce common carbon steel in large quantities. Its output proportion in the total output of steel in major industrial countries is increasing constantly.
Because it is difficult for the three-phase electrodes of the electric arc furnace to contact the uneven burden at the same time when heating the raw material, the combustion of the electric arc furnace is unstable, which causes an unbalanced three-phase load and generates harmonic current, which is injected into the power grid through the triangular connecting coil of the transformer. The main harmonics are 2-7 harmonics, with an average of 8% to 20% of fundamental waves and a maximum of 45%. The power quality of the power grid is seriously affected.
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