Advantages of DC Electric Arc Furnace
DC electric arc furnace is a steel-making electric arc furnace that supplies electric energy with DC power. Like AC electric arc furnaces, it uses the arc produced between the electrode and the charge (or molten pool) to generate heat for the purpose of smelting and can be used to smelt steel or alloys.
The main advantages of DC electric arc furnaces over conventional AC electric arc furnaces are:
(1) The arc is stable and concentrated, the molten pool is agitated well, the temperature distribution in the furnace is uniform, and the lining erosion is small;
(2) Low fluctuation of current and voltage, less impact on the power grid, and longer cable life;
(3) Low electrode loss, 50% less electrode consumption per ton of steel than AC electric arc furnace. The performance of DC electric arc furnace is better than that of AC electric arc furnaces, but it has been hard to obtain a high-power DC power supply so it has not been developed for a long time.
(4) DC arc does not pass through zero point and has no periodic ignition and extinction, so the arc is stable.
(5) The graphite electrode of DC electric arc furnace acts as a cathode and the bottom electrode acts as an anode with fixed polarity. The heat generated by the arc mostly concentrates on the anode (i.e. the charge).
(6) DC electric arc furnace is generally a single electrode with only one arc burning vertically in the center of the furnace and no thousand disturbances and power transfer between the three phases.
Based on the above evaluation, DC arc characteristics are summarized as follows.
(7) The graphite electrode of DC electric arc furnace is only eroded at the end to form a circular recess.
(8) DC arc has no skin collection and proximity effects.
(9) Voltage drop of each section can be measured accurately.
(10) The electrode effect of DC electric arc furnace is very advantageous to charge heating. Under the same current condition, the heat produced by the anode effect is almost three times that of the cathodic effect.
(11) Mixing effect of DC electric arc furnace is much better than AC electric arc furnace, which makes the composition of steel more uniform.
The typical DC electric arc furnace includes a power supply, control system, short net, work, and bottom anode in addition to the outside of the furnace.
DC electric arc furnace has many similarities with ultra-high power AC electric arc furnace, such as scrap steel preheating equipment, oxygen-combustion nozzle, water-cooled oxygen gun, water-cooled furnace wall, and furnace cover, charging equipment, electrode lifting mechanism, and bottom blowing system, dust removal equipment, eccentric bottom tapping device, etc.
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